Scientific management introduces remarkable contributions to the industrial world. The basic objective of scientific management is to increase productivity with the help of increased efficiency in product and scientific management.
- Increase in Productivity: Given the introduction of scientific management, workmen are selected and appointed scientifically. As a result, the efficiency of the workmen is increasing and ultimately increases productivity.
- Motivate the workers to work: After careful observations, they are appointed to the job that suits them. Accordingly, workers are motivated to do their work and the performance of work becomes easy i.e., they can put their best efforts for the job.
- Possibility of redacting labor hours: With the help of time study, motion study, and fatigue study, unnecessary physical and mental labor of the worker can be easily removed. Besides, with the removal of the wastage of time, the scale of production can be increased.
- Increase in quality and reduction in the cost of production: By adopting research and observation in different methods of production, the cost of production can be reduced and the quality of the product can be improved. This will increase the competitive power of the business unit and consumers can get quality goods at a cheaper price.
- Increase the Industrial Relation: With the introduction of scientific management, a progressive outlook is found in place of conservation. As a result, a good atmosphere has been created inside the business unit. Due attention is given to matters relating to workers. This result is forming corning cordial relationship between workers and employers.
While the proponents of scientific management developed principles that could help workers in performing their tasks more efficiently, another classical viewpoint theory i.e., the administrative management theory concentrated on guidelines that managers may utilize to plan out the internal operations of the company. “HENRY FAYOL” and “MAX WEBER” were the most well-known general administrative thinkers.
The “Father of modern management” is acknowledged as being the French industrialist Henri Fayol. Three main categories can be used to group his management ideas:
- Functions of management,
- Principles of management,
- Activities which managers should perform.
The function of Management:
Management is a process that concerns itself with the efficient use of resources (men, material, machinery, and capital) in the most economical way to achieve the desired result. It includes five primary functions i.e., a) Planning, b) Organisation, c) Staffing, d) directing, and e) controlling and integrating functions are called “Co-ordinating”.
Principles of management:
Fayol distinguished fourteen principles of management that have been widely used and accepted and have formed the core of most management teachings and practices.
These principles are:
- Division of Labour: People can do their jobs more effectively the more specializations they have.
- Authority and responsibility: Responsibility refers to all the duties or activities that must be done to carry out a job. For good results, these responsibilities must be delegated to the lowest possible level of employees having the ability to perform them. Responsibility without authority is meaningless. Employees need to have enough power to handle the obligations they have been given. Authority is the individual’s right to make decisions and take actions required to complete one’s assigned responsibility.
- Discipline: Respect for the policies and agreements that guide an organization is required of all members. According to Fayol, discipline will result from effective management at all organizational levels, equitable arrangements, and well-applied sanctions for breaches.
- Unity of command: Only one person may give directions to each employee regarding a certain operation. Fayol thought that when a worker reported to more than one superior, there would be inconsistencies in the employee’s instructions and a muddled sense of who was in charge.
- Unity of direction: One manager should use one plan to oversee all organizational activities that share the same goal. For instance, a corporation shouldn’t have two directors overseeing the employment process, each with its hiring criteria.
- Subordination of individual interest to the common good: In any endeavor, the interests of the organization as a whole should always come first, not the interests of the personnel.
- Remuneration: Compensation for work done should be fair to employees and employers.
- Centralization: Decreasing the role of subordinates in decision-making in centralization. Increasing their role in decentralization. Managers, in Fayol’s opinion, should maintain this duty while simultaneously granting their staff members the necessary latitude to carry out their duties effectively. The challenge is determining in each situation how much centralization is appropriate.
- The hierarchy: The line of authority in an organization — often represented today by the neat boxes and lines of the organization chart — grows to rank from top management to the lowest level of the enterprise.
- Order: Materials and people should be in the right place and time. It is important to place people in roles or positions that are most suited for them.
- Equity: Managers should treat their staff members with respect and fairness.
- Stability of staff: A high personnel turnover rate is detrimental to an organization’s ability to operate effectively.
- Initiative: Even though some errors may occur, subordinates should be allowed to create and implement their plans.
Esprit de corps: Fostering teamwork will help the company feel more cohesive. Fayol believed that even insignificant things may foster this spirit. He suggested, for example, the use of verbal communication instead of formal communication whenever possible.