a) Chain of Command
Who reports to whom is made clear by the chain of command, an uninterrupted line of power that runs from the organization’s top to the lowest level.
Authority and unity of command are two complementary ideas that must be discussed about the chain of command. Authority is the capacity to give orders and demand that they be carried out. Each managerial job is assigned a place in the chain of command to help with coordination, and each manager is given a certain amount of authority to fulfill their duties.
A continuous line of command is supported by the unity-of-command principle. According to this, a person should report to one and only one superior, the person for whom they are directly accountable.
The fundamental principles of organizational design also vary with the times. The concepts of a chain of command, authority, and unity of command have substantially less relevance today because of advancements in information technology and the trend toward empowering employees.
b) Span of Control
The number of levels and managers in an organization is determined by the Span of Control. With all else being equal, an organization will be more effective the wider or longer its span. Wider spheres of control have been more popular recently. They are in line with recent initiatives by businesses to lower costs, lower overhead, hasten division creation, boost viability, get closer to customers, and empower employees.