The function of Management may be described below:
The first function of management is planning. The planning works out in broad outlines of the things that need to be done and the methods of doing them in an orderly manner. Planning for an objective is like the sketch of a building. Just as a building cannot be erected without a good sketch and other preparatory arrangements, so also a business cannot function properly without a plan. Planning, of course, includes some amount of forecasting and decision-making.
Forecasting is the process of assessing future Decision making will diagnose the problem develop and evaluate alternatives and select the best course of action. Hence, every undertaking, be it a business, Government or any other body should consider planning and forecasting as essential preliminaries to effect action. But to be successful, they must have the attributes of utility, flexibility, continuity, and precision.
Once the plan is formulated then there is a need for organizing. This is nothing but a structure created to give a successful form of all combined efforts. To actualize structure is created to give a successful form of all the combined efforts.
- To achieve the objectives according to the plan, specification, and fixation of required activities
- Combining those activities in a property
- Delegation of authority and responsibility at different levels of the organization.
In organizing, the manager seeks to establish a position and decide the duties and responsibilities that belong to each one. But in one case of staffing, the manager finds the right man for each job, brings and trains the whole staff for this purpose, and maintains a congenial atmosphere for work. But while stuffing, it should be remembered that staffing cannot be done once and for all, because the member of the staff may change due to leaving, retiring, dying, etc.
Planning and organizing are not sufficient to move the staff into action. For this command is necessary. The command is the starting signal or order to enable the staff member to move into operational activities. The command may be compared with a guard of a train. The train move as soon as the guard shows the green signal. Similarly, the staff member will start their activities as soon as the guard shows the green signal. Similarly, the staff member will start their activities as soon as they receive a command from the respective manager. But command or order should not be arbitrary. It should be the outcome of the requirement of the situation.
Direction is associated with the command direction and includes guidance and supervision of the work of the subordinate. Direction is a continuous process and involves making decisions and giving necessary instructions for work performance. For effectiveness, the direction respected and obeyed Management should not issue such type of direction or orders which cannot or will not be obeyed.
Motivation is a psychological act that helps the worker to do more work. It is a psychological aspect since it is linked to mental state. A worker is motivated to give a task his best effort while it is being completed by motivation.
Management is the art of getting work done by workers to achieve the objectives of the organization. Collective efforts are necessary to realize the productivity of an operation, which is key to9 growth and prosperity. And the collective efforts of the workers in turn depend upon the “capability to work” and “desire to work”.
The work of planning, organization, command, direction, and motivation if carried into effect smoothly and properly, leaves nothing to be desired for the accomplishment of the objectives. But mistakes, misunderstandings, friction, loss, and lack of effort are not uncommon occurrences in business affairs. Moreover, the plan may be found defective, organization unsound, command and direction lacking in force and sincerity, motivation ineffective, and coordination loss. To check and remedy all these loopholes, there is a need for control.
Control involves ensuring that everything happens in accordance with the stated principles, the strategy adopted, and the instructions given. Its goal is to highlight flaws and mistakes so that they may be fixed and future occurrences can be avoided. Control is like examining students. Student requires periodical examinations by which can assess their performance. These examinations are necessary spite their regular attendance and adequate attention to their studies, to check actual performance against the agreed standard. Similarly, control is necessary to see that everything is done according to the rules laid and instructions are given and that actual performance corresponds with the planned course of action. The check will not only ensure adequate progress and satisfactory performance but will also contribute greatly to possible future needs.
In a large organization, the number of workers and volume of work are large. The jobs of different workers need to be harmonized. This task is performed with the help of coordination.
It is, in “MOONEY REILEY’s” opinion, “the orderly arrangement of group efforts to provide unity of actions in pursuit of a common purpose.”