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1) Economic Causes:
Industrial disputes relate to economic causes include –
- Demand for higher wages.
- Demand for higher dearness allowance.
- Demand for a share in the profits of the Company.
- Demand for better working conditions.
- Rationalization and Automation in Industry
- Demand for facilities such as medical, education, housing, etc.
2) Managerial Causes:
It includes the following-
- The attitude of employers towards labor in respect of (i) not recognizing the trade unions (ii) recognizing the rival union (iii) not following the labor policy.
- Defection recruitment policy includes – i) Hire and Fire Policy, (ii) Recruitment of Casuals, (iii) Wrong transfer and promotion policies (iv) Not making workers permanent for long.
- Delays in the labor agreement.
- Incorrect interpretation of terms of the agreement.
- Inefficient leadership.
- Layoff and retrenchment.
3) Other Causes:
It includes –
- Irresponsible trade union.
- Political affiliation.