Management as a Science
Science is a systematic body of knowledge, about the area of study acquired through rigorous methods of collecting data, classifying and measuring it, setting up hypotheses, and testing these hypotheses. Hence, the basic characteristics are –
- There must be an existence of a body of knowledge
- Its fundamental ideas are derived from observations and experimentation.
- Principles must have universal application
- The principles must satisfy the cause-effect phenomenon
If we consider the above characteristics with management, we observe that-
- Management is a systemized body of knowledge that deals with the common people.
- Management principles have been developed over the years through continuous observations and experimentation.
- Management principles have been universal applications for all branches of human activity of a non-profit and a profit-making business unit.
- Management principles may not yield identical results when applied in different organizations or at different times in the same organization only because human behavior is ever-changing and unpredictable.
Hence, management is not an exact science like physics, chemistry, biology, etc. As management deals with human behaviors which are ever-changing and unpredictable, the principles of management are not entirely fundamental truths. Hence, the principles of management may be considered partly as science.