State Scientific Theory of Management.
Refer to the topic ‘Scientific Management’, ‘Fredrick Winslow Taylor’, ‘Taylor’s scientific management stresses the following points’ of Unit at a glance.
Taylor’s scientific management produced two main management techniques: piece-rate incentive schemes and time and motion studies.
Piece-rate incentive systems:
The purpose of the piece-rate incentive system was to reward the worker who produced the maximum output. If there was a chance of earning higher wages by putting in extra effort, workers would be motivated to earn more. According to this system, a worker who meets the established standards of performance earns the base rate fixed by the management using scientific methods. If the worker’s output exceeds the set standard, his wages will go up. The piece-rate system serves workers’ interests and meets management requirements.
Time and Motion Study:
Taylor, along with Gilbreth, tried to determine the best way to perform every job. The art of observing, evaluating, and synthesizing the time components of any action is referred to as time research. Time study involves the determination of the time required for each element of a worker’s job, by observing his movements. A time study is conducted after the motion study. Motion research entails breaking down the movements that are required to complete a task into their component elements, removing unnecessary movements, and keeping just those that are required.
Frank B. Gilbreth and Lilian M. Gilbreth
Frank B. Gilbreth is considered the father of work-study. He began his career as a bricklayer, advanced to Chief Engineer, and then launched his own contracting company. Their wife Lilian Gilbreth, a trained psychologist, assisted Gilbreth in the matters related to fatigue and monotony. Their contributions are as follows:
i) Motion Study:
Gilbreth’s most significant contribution to scientific management was the development of motion study i.e. study of movements involved in the performance of an operation to find the best way of doing work.
ii) Micromotion study:
To assist in time study, Frank also developed a micro-motion study. The movements made by workers while they carried out their duties were observed using a motion picture camera and a clock with a hundredth-second marking system. His research towards fewer bricklaying motions is what made him most famous.
iii) Study of fatigue:
Gilbreth’s wife Lilian’s thesis, published as the book titled “The Psychology of Management” was one of the early works applying findings of psychology to the workplace. The couple suggested that fatigue can be reduced by allowing rest periods, better seating arrangements, and good working conditions.
Henry L. Gantt
Henry Laurence Gantt was a close associate of Taylor at Midwale and Bethlehem Steel. Later on, Gantt established himself as a solo consultant and produced several contributions. He is remembered for his work on the task-and-bonus system. Under Gantt’s incentive plan, the workers received a day’s wages even if they did not complete the work. But, if he completed the work in better than the normal standard time, he received a bonus. He also introduced a bonus for foremen, who would be paid for every worker who made the standard; if all the workers under a foreman made it, he would receive a bonus.